• Vatican City!

    Vatican City: Vatican Museums. Go Now!

    Vatican City
    The smallest country in the world offers the heart of Catholicism and among the world's finest art collections, including the Sistine Chapel and the Raphael Rooms (ceiling pictured). Go to Vatican City!

  • Albania!

    Albania: Village of Theth! Go Now!

    Albania is unique in Europe, starting with its Muslim heritage, but expanding to include food, culture, and even its natural beauty. Explore Albania!

  • Netherlands!

    Netherlands: Wooden shoes. Go Now!

    This low country might be small, but it maintains a unique place in history and culture. Explore the Netherlands!

  • Ukraine!

    Ukraine: Traditional Village. Go Now!

    Ukrainian culture is based on village life, particularly that found in the Carpathian Mountains (pictured). Begin Your Journey!

  • Latvia!

    Latvia: Art Nouveau in Riga. Go Now!

    Latvia is small, but has a diverse history, foods, and architecture (shown), which includes aspects from both Eastern and Western Europe. Begin Your Journey!

  • Germany!

    Germany: Town Hall. Go Now!

    Food, beer, natural beauty, and more create a country that's known for its distinct culture and history. Go Now!

Ethnicity, Language, & Religion of Estonia


Although most people living in Estonia are ethnic Estonians, nearly a quarter of the population is ethnically Russian, a holdover from the Soviet times. Estonians are ethnically similar to the Finns; both groups are a combination of early Europeans and Uralic people from Central Asia and the Ural Mountains. More distantly, the Estonians are related to these Uralic people, including the Turks and many Central Asian groups today.


The linguistic breakdown in Estonia is similar to the ethnic make-up in Estonia; with most ethnic Estonians speaking Estonian and most ethnic Russians speaking Russian. However, only Estonian is an official national language. Estonian is unlike most European languages as it is a member of the Uralic language family and is most closely related to Finnish and, to a lesser degree, Hungarian and numerous minor languages found in the Ural Mountains.

Most of the ethnic Russians speak Russian and few learn Estonian. This makes Russian the primary language of communication as much of Estonia's older population is fluent in Russian from the Soviet times. However today the ethnic Estonians are learning Russian in smaller numbers, often times at the expense of learning English, which is slowly becoming the second language of choice and the primary means of communication between linguistic groups (although many ethnic Russians and older people don't speak English).


Most of Estonia's population is either religiously unattached or doesn't strongly adhere to any particular religion. For those who do practice, Evangelical Lutheran is the most populous religion, followed by Orthodox, which is primarily practiced by ethnic Russians.

Lutheranism is a protestant religion that was founded by and named after Martin Luther, who led the Protestant Reformation. Like all Christian and protestant faiths, Lutherans believe there is one God and that His son, Jesus is the savior and forgiver of sins. Lutherans also believe that the Bible, which includes the Old and New Testaments, is the only true word of God. It is generally in the interpretation of the Bible that protestant religions vary and this is true in the case of Lutheranism, which tends to interpret the Bible quite differently from Catholicism, which was the religion Lutheranism separated from.

This page was last updated: May, 2014