• Bangladesh!

    Bangladesh: Traditional houses. Go Now!

    This low-lying country has historic ties to India and Pakistan, but today maintains a wholly unique culture. Explore Bangladesh!

  • Indonesia!

    Indonesia: Lombok. Go Now!

    This archipelago nation is culturally diverse from big cities to isolated islands. Begin Your Journey!

  • Jordan!

    Jordan: Petra. Go Now!

    Tucked away in this Middle Eastern country, the famed city of Petra (pictured) links the past to the present culture. Explore Jordan!

  • Mongolia!

    Mongolia: Desert. Go Now!

    This vast country has a culture that spans past and present... a nomadic life shifting to a modern & sedentary society. Begin Your Journey!

  • Kyrgyzstan!

    Kyrgyzstan: Tian Shan Mountains. Go Now!

    The mountains, including the Tian Shan Mountains (pictured), give Kyrgyzstan a unique culture, partially formed from this isolation from the mountains. Go Now!

Geography, Weather, & Wildlife of Indonesia


Indonesian Geography - Lombok

Indonesia is a large chain of islands that sit between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. This island nation borders Malaysia on the island of Borneo, Timor-Leste (East Timor) on the island of Timor, and Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea. Although Indonesia has no other land borders, its many islands sit close to Singapore, the Philippines, Palau, and the Federated States of Micronesia all to its north, and Australia to its south.

Indonesia consists of over 13,000 islands, of which over 6,000 of them are inhabited, making the archipelago nation quite varied in terms of geography, particularly given the fact that most of these islands are volcanic in origin. Indonesia's largest islands, including Borneo, Sumatra, and Java are very heavily volcanic in origin as these volcanoes and mountains form the bulk of the geography. Sumatra's volcanoes are primarily focused along the island's southwestern shore and they fall off moving to the northeast. Borneo's mountains peak in the center of the island, where Indonesia meets Malaysia; again from here the elevation drops off moving south. The other thousands of islands in the country vary greatly by size and elevation.


Indonesian Geography - Rice fields
Rice fields in Bali

Indonesia's weather patterns are primarily based on the seasons and elevation. The wet season runs from about October to April, but some parts of the large and spread out country get much more rain than other areas. Generally speaking the western side of all mountainous islands gets more rain, including Sumatra, Java, and New Guinea. The dry season runs from about May to September, but again rainfall amounts vary from island to island and some places still receive rain, while others may not get any rain for the entire season. Temperatures are fairly constant year round since the country is on the equator and surrounded by the water, which tends to prevent extreme temperature changes. Along the coasts and at sea level, the average temperature is about or just above 80° F (27° C), while in the mountains the annual average is about 73° F (23° C). Days tend to get a bit warmer than these averages and night do dip a little.


Indonesian Wildlife - Coral reefs
Coral reefs

Indonesia's large land mass and various islands have been home to thousands of animals for years as these islands sometimes give an animal better survival odds, while at other times they prevent the spread of the animal to new areas, hence hurting them. Today there are still hundreds of mammal species including orangutans, monkeys, rhinoceroses, elephants, and smaller animals like bats. The sea life is obviously very impressive due to the waters surrounding the country and its many islands. In addition to the thousands of species of fish and shellfish in the oceans, inland there are nearly 1,000 species as well. These species include carp, trout, tuna, mackerel, marlin, barracuda, crab, shrimp, sharks, and more unique animals native to the region like the golden arowana.

The bird life in Indonesia numbers nearly 1,000 as many birds migrate to and from the islands. Some of these birds include starlings, plovers, kingfishers, and eagles. The reptilian and amphibian life on the islands is very diverse with numerous lizards including monitors and the famous Komodo dragon, snakes, crocodiles, frogs, and turtles. There are also numerous species, most notably butterflies and bees.

This page was last updated: March, 2013