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    Indonesia
    This archipelago nation is culturally diverse from big cities to isolated islands. Begin Your Journey!

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    Nepal
    This landlocked country mixes the cultures of the Indian sub-continent with the high Himalayas. Explore Nepal!

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    Mongolia
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    Qatar
    Although little more than a deserted peninsula, Qatar has a thriving culture based on technology and immigration, with Doha (pictured) taking the lead. Explore Qatar!

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    The mountains, including the Tian Shan Mountains (pictured), give Kyrgyzstan a unique culture, partially formed from this isolation from the mountains. Go Now!

History of North Korea

WARNING: North Korea is unstable, please read this travel warning before going!

The ancient Koreans were divided into a number of groups on the Korean peninsula and on what is today mainland China. Some of these groups were focused on the mountainous interior and north, while others lived on the lowlands. The terrain separated these groups and unity among the people took much to accomplish.

Not until the 400s or 500s did any one of these groups gain enough influence and power to oversee a vast area on the peninsula and even then there were a number of political entities that held power in various parts of the peninsula. During this time much of the Korean way of life was similar to that of China at the time and in the 600s Buddhism was introduced from China, making a substantial impact, particularly in the south.

In 936 the kingdom of Goryeo (the root of the word Korea) came to control much of today's Korean peninsula. This group ruled the region for the next couple centuries as Buddhism was spread and a distinct culture and ethnicity formed.

The Mongols, based in Beijing, China invaded the Korean peninsula in the 1200s and quickly overtook the landmass. With this invasion came Confucianism and thoughts competing with Buddhism. After the Mongols and Chinese withdrew from the peninsula there was much debate between philosophies and allegiances. These debates and the battles that arose from them, continued until almost 1400 when a Confucianism leader came to power and moved the capital to what is today known as Seoul.

Korea was then overcome by the Japanese in the 1500s and the Manchu Chinese in the 1600s. Despite this foreign rule, this time instilled a Korean pride in the people as they further developed their culture, identity, and even a distinct alphabet.

Once free from foreign rule in the 1800s, the Koreans counter-reacted to their past and banned foreigners from their country. The Japanese and small groups of French missionaries were asked to leave and the government only continued communication with China. This self-isolationism only lasted briefly though as the Far East trade routes were becoming increasingly important for European and North American powers.

Due to small battles and military threats from the United States and Japan, Korea finally opened up to the outside world in the late 1800s. Unfortunately, their fear of foreign rule came to being almost immediately after they opened up as Japan took the peninsula in the 1890s.

After a very brief period of independence starting in 1897, Japan retook the peninsula and maintained control on the region on and off until the end of World War II (WWII). The Japanese attempted to destroy Korean culture in a number of ways, but in part by destroying symbolic history such as buildings. This led to strong resistance and a failing economy in Korea. Many people fled to Manchuria (in China), while others stayed to fight or to try to make a living.

During WWII the Japanese insisted the Koreans fight on their side, but few agreed to this and many joined the Chinese army to liberate themselves from Japanese rule. Due to their geographic location, the Korean peninsula was the victim of Chinese-Japanese battles and by war's end the peninsula was in poor condition. To put a bigger strain on the economy, many of those Koreans who fled under Japanese rule returned to the peninsula.

At the conclusion of WWII, the peninsula was divided between the United States (in the south) and the Soviet Union (in the north) in the form of administration zones, but with the idea that the two sides would unite. The United Nations (UN) led a peninsula-wide popular election to determine future political governance, but the north refused to participate. Once results were tallied, the south declared independence as the "Republic of Korea" and the north countered by claiming independence as the "People's Democratic Republic of Korea;" both side claimed jurisdiction over the entire peninsula.

This political tension rose in the late 1940s until the Korean War broke out in 1950. After a surprise attack and quick advance into the south, the north fell back as the UN and US landed troops on the peninsula. To respond, China and the Soviet Union (although unofficially) entered the war and in 1953 the war ceased in a stalemate with a new border almost exactly where the original border had been.

Before, during, and after the Korean War, North Korea's government has been very "stable" as Kim Il-Sung and now his son, Kim Jong-Il have ruled the country during this period. However stability doesn't imply a positive state and the north is filled with restrictions, ridiculous laws, lacks of freedom, and is an example of how to violate nearly every human rights issue.

After great strides of improvement economically and infrastructurally in the 1950s, North Korea has stalled. This began in 1956 with de-Stalinization, a process of condemning self-rule and cult followings. In order to prevent the loss of his own cult, Kim Il-Sung shut his country off from the country leading this charge, the Soviet Union, then closed his country off from nearly every country other than China.

In addition to North Korea's self-imposed isolation, due to their poor human rights record, declining willingness to communicate, and their interest in producing atomic bombs, much of the world has placed trade restrictions or embargoes on North Korea. This has led to an isolated state with a crippling economy and worsening conditions. Every drought is magnified because trade to North Korea is almost non-existent and thousands of people starve as a result of this inability to obtain food.

These economic failures have led to massive barrowing, defaulting on loans, and due to a fear of international invasion, a strong focus on military build-up. Even after Kim Il-Sung died in 1994 and his son took over little has changed.

The situation in relation to South Korea is still unresolved. The people in the south today debate what the best direction for their future is; many people maintain unity, while many young people believe a joint state would be little more than an economic burden, crippling the future of the nation. In the north, most people believe their leaders when told that they are the best country in the world and everyone else is falling behind; if the north and south do unite in the near future, the North Koreans will be in for a sad awakening.

This page was last updated: July, 2012